Saving

How to figure out how much money you need to retire comfortably

Twenty/20

Many Americans, 56%, have no clue how much money they need stashed away to fund a comfortable retirement, according to a Northwestern Mutual survey released in June.

"It is important to calculate as early as possible. It requires time to build and is difficult to make up," says Guy Hockerman, director of financial planning at the Commerce Trust Company in Missouri.

So how much money will you need to retire comfortably? Grow crunched the numbers to find out.

Generally, experts say, you should aim to have an annual income in retirement that's equivalent to about 75% of your pre-retirement income. That includes both money you've saved and what you get from Social Security. We used the Social Security Administration's benefits calculator to estimate that part of the payout and then calculated the balance you'd need at retirement to cover the rest, assuming you withdrew 4% of that balance each year.

Based on those calculations, a 66-year-old earning $50,000 and retiring this year would need about $523,500 saved.

The further away you are from retiring, the more you'll likely need.

Say you're a 25-year-old making $50,000 a year—which is pretty consistent with what recent grads can expect to earn. The Social Security Administration's benefits calculator estimates that, by age 67, you'd be earning $220,000 (don't forget about inflation and raises). The calculation assumes your annual income increases by a bit more than 2% per year early in your career, with wage growth slowing down as you approach retirement. That would put your retirement savings goal at about $1.6 million.

These calculations are personal, though, so it's worth talking this through with a financial advisor.

For example, if you have annuities, pensions, or rental income, then you won't need to put away as much. Same goes if you're investing using a Roth account: Roth contributions have already been taxed and aren't taxed on withdrawal, meaning your balance goes further in retirement. Factors like where you live, whether you retire with any debt, and what kind of retirement lifestyle you envision, can also make a difference to your goal.

For example, Fidelity estimates that if you're a 25-year-old planning to retire at age 67, you'll need 10 times your annual salary in savings for a secure retirement. But it suggests you need eight times your salary with "below average" retirement spending, and 12 times your salary for "above average" retirement spending.

All the same, here are four steps you can take to get, and stay, on track.

Start saving for retirement ASAP

The best time to start saving for retirement is as soon as you start earning. When folks well into their careers increase their retirement savings, it can often be painful since it means less take-home pay. But if you're a recent grad, you can start stashing that money away before the lifestyle creep sets in.

And, thanks to the power of compounding, that money can grow over the course of your entire career.

"Millionaires are made in their 20s and 30s, not their 50s and 60s. The reason being, they have decades of compounding growth," says Fred Creutzer, president of Creutzer Financial Services in Maryland.

Don't miss out on your company match

Even if you can't save the 10%-15% percent of what you earn year for retirement, as Fidelity recommends, if you have a 401(k), you should at least put in enough to receive whatever match you can. It's basically free money: You can get an immediate 100% return on your contribution if you take advantage of a dollar-for-dollar company 401(k) match.

The employer match also counts towards your total, so if you save 4% and your company matches 4%, you're already at 8%.

Pay down your debts

While paying off your loans won't increase the size of your savings, it does mean lower debt payments, and that could potentially mean you need less stashed away for retirement. Paying off loans more quickly usually also means you pay less, total, in interest.

"It is very hard to pay off a mortgage in retirement. And there are some people nearing retirement who are still paying off school loans, too," says Jay Srivatsa, CEO of Future Wealth in California.

Work longer if you can

If you're nearing retirement and don't have enough saved up, you may consider working a few more years. This gives you more time to save, could increase the size of your Social Security payment, and means you'll need less saved up, since that money will need to stretch over fewer years.

But remember that this isn't a bulletproof plan. Between surprise declines in health and age discrimination, not everyone chooses when they get to retire. So the smartest thing you can do is to be prepared.

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